In sub-mountainous parts of Punjab and Haryana, yellow rust disease has been detected in the wheat crop which has raised concerns among farmers about a drop in the crop’s yield.
- Yellow rust or stripe rust is a fungal disease which attacks the leaves of wheat crop by forming yellow stripes and affects their photosynthesis that causes shrivelling of grain size.
- It is caused by the Magnaportheoryzae fungus and was discovered in Brazil in 1985
- It is a disease of cool weather in the northern hills and north-western plains zone.
- The recent rains in the region coupled with a slight increase temperature and humid conditions are favourable for yellow rust.
- It can cause up to 20% yield loss.
- In recent times, due to temperature rise caused by climate change has contributed to the spread of the fungus. in the fungus.
- Temperature: Between 10-15°C (Sowing time) and 21-26°C (Ripening & Harvesting) with bright sunlight.
- Rainfall: Around 75-100 cm.
- Soil Type: Well-drained fertile loamy and clayey loamy (Ganga-Satluj plains and black soil region of the Deccan)
- Top Wheat Producing States: Uttar Pradesh > Punjab > Madhya Pradesh > Haryana > Rajasthan.
- It is a rabi (winter) crop, is sown between late October till December while the harvesting of the crop starts from April onwards.
- India is the second-largest producer after China.
- Government initiatives to support wheat cultivation:
- Macro Management Mode of Agriculture,
- National Food Security Mission
10 More Wetlands From India Declared As Ramsar Sites
The Ramsar Convention has declared 10 more wetland sites from India as sites of national importance. Ramsar sites are those which are declared under the Ramsar Convention signed in 1971 to preserve wetlands of national importance. Thus India now has a total of 37 Ramsar sites covering an area of 1,067,939 hectares.
New Ramsar sites from India:
10 Ramsar sites: The 10 newly added Ramsar sites are as follows:
- Maharashtra-NandurMadhameshwar (1)
- Punjab – Keshopur-Miani, Beas Conservation Reserve, Nangal(3)
- Uttar Pradesh-Nawabganj, Parvati Agra, Saman, Samaspur, Sandi and SarsaiNawar(6)
About Ramsar convention:
- International treaty for “the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands”.
- It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands.
- It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran.
- The Convention was signed on 2 nd of February 1971.
- The 2 nd of February each year is World Wetlands Day.
- THEME-“Migratory species connect the planet and together we welcome them home.”
- Number of parties to the convention (COP) is 170.