1. KALAKKAD MUNDANTHURAI TIGER RESERVE
- Located in the Southern Western Ghats it is the second-largest protected area in Tamil Nadu State (behind only Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary).
- The Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve was created in 1988 by combining Kalakad Wildlife Sanctuary and Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary.
- KMTR forms part of the inter-state (Kerala and Tamil Nadu) Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve. This part of Agastya Mala hills in the core of KMTR is considered one of the five centres of biodiversity and endemism in India by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
- The Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE) has developed and implemented a conservation intervention program in KMTR to decrease local villagers’ dependency on the forests for fuel to and build community awareness about the value of biodiversity in the area.
- There are five Kani Tribal habitations, consisting of about 102 families.
2. COASTAL REGULATION ZONE
- CRZ is the zone along the coastal stretches of seas, bays, estuaries, creeks, rivers and backwaters along the coastline specially demarcated for regulated development activity.
- The demarcated zone consists of coastal stretches influenced by tidal action (in the landward side) up to 500 metres from the High Tide Line (HTL) and the land between the Low Tide Line (LTL) and the HTL.
- The regulations in this zone are governed by the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ), 2011 issued under the under Section 3 of the Environment Protection Act, 1986.
- In this zone, Government imposes restrictions on setting up and expansion of industries or other projects. It is mandatory for getting clearances from ministry and local authorities to start any development project in CRZ.
The CRZ Notification, 2011 clearly lists out the areas that fall within the category of CRZ-I. No new construction shall be permitted in CRZ-I. It includes: – Ecologically sensitive areas and the geomorphologic features that play a primary role in maintaining the integrity of the coast and the area between Low Tide Line and High Tide Line.
The Notification defines CRZ-II as the areas which are developed up to or close to the shoreline and falling within municipal limits. Buildings are permissible on the landward side of the existing road, authorized structure or hazardous line where there are no authorized structures. Other activities such as desalination plants and storage of non-hazardous cargo are also permissible.
CRZ-III areas are those areas that are relatively undisturbed and do not fall under either in Category I or II and also include rural and urban areas that are not substantially developed. Only certain activities relating to agriculture, horticulture, gardens, pasture, parks, play field, forestry, projects of Department of Atomic Energy, mining of rare minerals, salt manufacture from seawater, facilities for receipt, storage, regasification of petroleum products and liquefied natural gas, facilities for generating power by non-conventional energy
sources and certain public facilities may be permitted in this zone.
The aquatic area from low tide line upto territorial limits is classified as CRZ-IV including the area of the tidal influenced water body. In CRZ-IV areas, there is no restriction on the traditional fishing and allied activities undertaken by local communities. However, no untreated sewage, effluents or solid waste shall be let off or dumped in these areas. A comprehensive plan for treatment of sewage generating from the city must be formulated within a period of one year from the date of issue of this Notification and be implemented within two years thereafter.