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  • It is the world’s largest deep ocean volcanic eruption happened in New Zealand. It was recently confirmed by the researchers.
  • Named as Havre, the deep ocean volcanic eruption was first discovered in 2002. A solidified volcanic rock known as pumice raft — 400 square kilometres in size — found floating in the ocean near New Zealand in 2012 showed that underwater eruption had occurred. The eruption involved 14 aligned vents causing a “massive rupture”.


According to a recent study, in India, more than 10 million people suffer from a self-diagnosable ailment called Seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Its milder version usually resolves itself within months.

SAD occurs in climates where there is less sunlight at certain times of the year. Sometimes, it is mistaken to be a “lighter” version of depression, which is untrue. It is a different version of the same illness and people with SAD are just as ill as people with major depression, according to psychiatrists.

Symptoms: Symptoms include fatigue, depression, a feeling of hopelessness and social withdrawal.

Vulnerable group: Women are overwhelmingly more susceptible to SAD than men. Statistics released by the Indian Medical Association (IMA) show that SAD occurs four times more often in women than in men. The age of onset is estimated to be between 18 and 30 years but can affect anyone irrespective of age. SAD generally starts in late fall and early winter and goes away during spring and summer. Depressive episodes linked to summer can occur, but are much rarer than winter episodes.

Prevention: A few ways in which people can prevent winter depression include ensuring a healthy and balanced diet. Staying well hydrated is key during the winter months since it gives you more energy, mental clarity and an enhanced digestive function. Getting enough sunlight and engaging in regular outdoor physical exercise are also important.

Treatment: Treatment for SAD involves enough light exposure, artificial light exposure, sun therapy and drugs, if needed. Artificial light exposure is effective but may take four to six weeks to see a response, although some patients improve within days. Therapy is continued until sufficient and daily natural sunlight exposure is available.