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Key Points:

  1. As per the report, India accounted for 4 % of global malaria cases in 2017. It has made significant progress in reducing malaria since then.
    ii. India has registered a 24 % reduction in cases over 2016, mainly due to its reduction in the highly malaria infected state of Odisha.
    iii. Odisha contributed to nearly 40 % of all malaria cases in India. Success factors for this reduction includes: political commitment, strengthened technical leadership, which focused on prioritizing the right mix of vector control measures, and increased levels of domestic funding to back efforts.
    iv. Odisha also used its network of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to deliver malaria services especially in rural and remote areas.
    v.In 2018, WHO certified Paraguay as malaria-free, becoming the first countryin the American continent to receive this status in 45 years.

“Hit By Arrows, Kept Walking”: American Killed By Protected Andaman Tribe


  • An American national was killed by members of a protected and reclusive tribe in the Andamans, possibly with arrows, when he tried to enter the North Sentinel Island, the police said on Wednesday.
  • In a press release, DependraPathak, Director General of Police (DGP), Andaman and Nicobar Police, said John Allen Chau, 27, had enlisted the help of local electronics engineer Alexander and a water sports service provider and hired five fishermen to evade the patrolling teams of the police, the Coast Guard and the Navy to reach the island. For this, the fishermen were paid ₹25,000 by Mr. Chau.
  • The DGP said that access to North Sentinel Island and its buffer zone is strictly restricted under the Protection of Aboriginal Tribe (Regulation), 1956 and Regulations under Indian Forest Act, 1927.

Who are the Sentinelese?

  • The Sentinelese, a negrito tribe who live on the North Sentinel Island of the Andamans, have not faced incursions and remain hostile to outsiders.
  • The inhabitants are connected to the Jarawa on the basis of physical, as well as linguistic similarities, researchers say. Based on carbon dating of kitchen middens by the Anthropological Survey of India, Sentinelese presence was confirmed in the islands to 2,000 years ago. Genome studies indicate that the Andaman tribes could have been on the islands even 30,000 years ago.

How are they protected?

  • The Govt. of India issued the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Protection of Aboriginal Tribes) Regulation, 1956 to declare the traditional areas occupied by the tribes as reserves, and prohibited entry of all persons except those with authorisation.
  • Photographing or filming the tribe members is also an offence. The rules were amended later to enhance penalties. But restricted area permits were relaxed for some islands recently.

Have they made contact?

  • The Sentinelesehave been fiercely hostile to outside contact. But in 1991 they accepted some coconuts from a team of Indian anthropologists and administrators.
  • Some researchers argue that the Sentinelese have been mostly left alone even from colonial times, unlike other tribes such as the Onges, Jarawas and Great Andamanese, because the land they occupy has little commercial attraction.

How many are there?

  • From 1901 to 1921 they were estimated to be 117 people. In 1931, the number dropped to 50, a figure used for the 1961 Census too. In 1991 their head count was put at 23. Census 2001 counted 39 inhabitants.