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Ground water regulatory mechanism

  • In order to comply with various directions of the Hon’ble NGT and to address various shortcomings in the existing guidelines of ground water extraction, the Central Ground Water Authority, Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation notified revised guidelines for ground water extraction.
  • The revised guidelines aim to ensure a more robust ground water regulatory mechanismin the country.


  • Ground water extraction in India is primarily for irrigation in agricultural activities, accounting for nearly 228 BCM (Billion Cubic Meter),which amounts to 90% of the annual ground water extraction.
  • The remaining 10% of extraction (25 BCM) is for drinking & domestic as well as industrial uses.
  • Industrial use is estimated to account for only about 5% of the annual groundwater extraction in the country.
  • India is the largest user of ground water in the world, extracting ground water to the tune of 253 bcmper year, which is about 25% of the global ground water extraction.


  • The WCF payable varies with the category of the area, type of industry and the quantum of ground water extractionand is designed to progressively increase from safe to over-exploited areas and from low to high water consuming industries as well as with increasing quantum of ground water extraction.
  • The high rates of WCF are expected to discourage setting up of new industries in over-exploited and critical areasas well as act as a deterrent to large scale ground water extraction by industries, especially in over-exploited and critical areas.
  • The WCF would also compel industries to adopt measures relating to water use efficiency and discourage the growth of packaged drinking water units, particularly in over-exploited and critical areas.

Other salient features of the revised guidelines

  • They are encouraged to use recycled and treated sewage waterby industries, provision of action against polluting industries, mandatory requirement of digital flow meters, piezometers and digital water level recorders (with or without telemetry depending upon quantum of extraction), mandatory water audit by industries abstracting ground water 500 m3/day or more in safe and semi-critical and 200 m3/day or more in critical and over-exploited assessment units, mandatory roof top rain water harvesting except for specified industries and measures to be adopted to ensure prevention of ground water contamination in premises of polluting industries/ projects.