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  • On November 11, 2018, according to an annual report 2018 Pneumonia and Diarrhea ProgressReport released by International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, vaccinations in India are still out of reach of girls under the age of five in rural India.

About the Report:

  • It was the 9thedition of the report and was released ahead of the 10th annual World Pneumonia Day — observed on November 12.
  • It measures the countries via the Global Action Plan for the Prevention of Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) score.
  • The Report is carried out in 15 Countries and it is analysed based on 10 Parametres.


  • Full immunization coverage in India has not been achieved as only 78 females were fully immunized for every 100 males fully immunized in poorer areas of Delhi.
  • Highest scoring countries are: Tanzania and
  • Lowest scoring countries are: Somalia, Chad, Nigeria.
  • Despite significant reductions of disease in recent years with improvements in access to and use of health interventions, nearly half a million pneumonia and diarrhea deaths still occurred in two countries—India and Nigeria.

Globally, pneumonia and diarrhea together led to nearly one of every four deaths that occurred in children under five years of age in 2016.
International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC):
♦ Headquarters: Baltimore, USA.

Supreme Court || No double jeopardy bar if there was no trial

On 30th October 2018, the Supreme Court declared that, bar of double jeopardy does not arise if an accused was discharged of a criminal offence, even before the commencement of trial, on the basis of an invalid sanction for prosecution.

Key Points:

Article 20 (2) of the Constitution mandates that a person cannot be prosecuted or punished 2 times for the same offence.
ii. A Bench of Justices R. Banumathi and Indira Banerjee held in a judgment that if an accused has not been tried at all and convicted or acquitted, the principles of double jeopardy cannot be invoked at all.
iii. If an earlier order of sanction was found to be invalid, there is no bar for the competent authority to issue a proper order of sanction for prosecution.