1. THE ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE
The environmental Kuznets curve suggests that economic development initially leads to deterioration in the environment, but after a certain level of economic growth, a society begins to improve its relationship with the environment and levels of environmental degradation reduces.
From a very simplistic viewpoint, it can suggest that economic growth is good for the environment.
However, critics argue there is no guarantee that economic growth will lead to an improved environment – in fact, the opposite is often the case. At the least, it requires a much targeted policy and attitudes to make sure that economic growth is compatible with an improving environment.
2. WHO RELEASES GUIDELINES ON RESPONDING TO CHILD SEX ABUSE
For the first time, WHO has published guidelines to help (primarily) front-line healthcare providers give high-quality, compassionate, and respectful care to children and adolescents (up to age 18) who have or may have experienced sexual abuse, including sexual assault or rape.
About the new guidelines: The new guidelines address an important gap in providing quality and trauma-informed care to survivors by placing emphasis on the safety, wishes, autonomy of children and adolescents.
Health care providers are recommended to:
- Provide first line support that is child or adolescent-centered and gender sensitive in response to disclosure of sexual abuse.
- Minimize additional trauma and distress while taking medical history, conducting the examination and documenting the findings.
- Offer HIV post-exposure prophylaxis and adherence support to those who have been raped and who present within 72 hours.
- Offer emergency contraception to girls who have been raped and who present within 120 hours/ 5 days.
- Consider STI presumptive treatment or prophylaxis in settings where laboratory testing is not feasible.
- Offer Hepatitis B and HPV vaccination as per national guidance.
- Consider cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with a trauma focus for those have PTSD symptoms and diagnosis and where safe and appropriate to do so involve at least 1 non-offending caregiver.
- Where required to report child sexual abuse to designated authorities, health care providers should inform the child or adolescent and their non-offending caregivers about the obligation to report the abuse and the limits of confidentiality before interviewing them.