UPSC Current Affairs – 11-03-2019

1.Belle II

In News:
Belle II is a particle accelerator experiment located in Tsukuba, Japan, is a unique facility in the world. Here, electrons and ositrons (anti-electrons) collide to produce B mesons in order to study the breakdown of symmetry in these decays.

About Belle II:

  • Belle II is the successor to the Belle experiment, and is currently being commissioned at the Super KEKB accelerator complex at KEK in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan.
  • The Belle II detector was “rolled in” (moved into the collision point of SuperKEKB) in April 2017. Belle II started taking data in early 2018. Over its running period, Belle II is expected to collect around 50 times more data than its predecessor due mostly to a factor 40 increase in instantaneous luminosity provided by SuperKEKB over the original KEKB accelerator

Focus of Belle II:

  • The focus at Belle II is on B-mesons — particles that contain the B-quark, also known as the beauty or bottom quark.
  • In particular, the focus is on the differences between the decay of the B-mesons and that of their antiparticles, the anti B-mesons.
  • Particularly the focus is on the breakdown in the symmetry between matter and antimatter. This broken symmetry between matter and antimatter is one of the most fundamental questions in particle physics.

India’s Contribution:

As an international collaboration involving 26 countries, Belle II has an Indian link — a team led by physicists and engineers from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, have built the fourth layer of the vertex detector.

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