16-07-2017

16-07-2017-16 Jul 2017


SOCIAL

Union Ministry Flag off 8th Slum Daud in Delhi. 

Union Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports shri Vijay Goel flagged off the 8th Slum Yuva Daud with shri Babul Supriyo, MoS Heavy Industries and Public Enterprise, shri Ramesh Bidhuri MP and Basketball players Divya, Prashanti, Akanksha and Pratima .       

Total 11 Slum Yuva Runs have been planned out of which 8 have been successful with mass participation of youth from various Delhi slums. 

About Slum yuva daud:

  • The Slum Yuva Daud is part of the Adopt Slum Campaign initiated by the Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports and Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan.
  • The Slum Yuva Daud & Adopt Slum campaigns aim at highlighting the government’s pro-people schemes among masses.
  • Participation: the campaign will involve groups like NSS, public schools, RWAs, NGOs, rotary clubs etc.

Nehru yuva kendras sangam:

  •  Nehru Yuva Kendras were established in the year 1972 with the objective of providing rural youth avenues to take part in the process of nation building as well providing opportunities for the development of their personality and skills.
  • In the year 1987-88, Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan(NYKS) was set up as an autonomous organization under the Government of India, Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, to oversee working of these Kendras.
  • NYKS is the largest grassroots level youth organization; one of its kind in the world. It channelizes the power of youth on the principles of voluntarism, self-help and community participation.
  • The basic objective for creation of youth clubs is to render community support through developmental initiatives involving activities with particular focus on youth empowerment.

Source:pib

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

1.High-speed Hyperloop One project ready for key test in Nevada:

  • Hyperloop One is ready to conduct a key test of a futuristic technology that seeks to revolutionize transportation by sending passengers packed into pods through vacuum tube.Hyperloop aims to achieve speeds of 250 miles per hour (402 km per hour) in its upcoming phase of testing.
  • Engineers will soon conduct a crucial test of a futuristic technology championed by entrepreneur  that seeks to revolutionize transportation by sending passengers and cargo packed into pods through an intercity system of vacuum tubes.
  • Hyperloop One, is gearing up to send a 28-foot-long (8.5 meter-long) pod gliding across a set of tracks in a test run in Nevada in the next few weeks.It aims to achieve speeds of 250 miles per hour (402 km per hour) in its upcoming phase of testing.
  •   Hyperloop One is working to develop a technical vision proposed by Musk, the founder of rocket maker SpaceX and electric car company Tesla Motors. In 2013, it was  suggested sending pods with passengers through giant vacuum tubes between Los Angeles and San Francisco.
  • As it gears up for that experiment, the company released the results from a 12 May test in the Nevada desert. A Hyperloop One sled on wheels for the first time coasted above a track using electromagnetic propulsion and magnetic levitation.
  •   It levitated for 5.3 seconds in a vacuum-sealed tube and reached speeds of 70 mph (113 kph), the company said in a statement. By comparison, another test by Hyperloop One that made national headlines last year was done on an open-air track, not in the tube, a key to achieving high speeds.
  •   Backers of the project envision the pods reaching speeds of 750 mph (1,200 kph), but skeptics say the hyperloop idea faces real-world challenges ranging from obtaining construction permits to making turns at jet speed.Top of Form
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  •   Hyperloop One has raised $160 million in funding and has touted the technology’s potential as a rapid-transit option.

Hyperloop One:

  •   Hyperloop One, previously known as Hyperloop Technologies, is a company in Los Angeles, California, that is working to commercialize the Hyperloop for moving passengers and/or cargo at airline speeds at a fraction of the cost of air travel. The concept of Hyperloop transportation was introduced and named by Elon Musk in August 2013, although he is not involved with Hyperloop One.
  • The Hyperloop uses a linear electric motor to accelerate and decelerate an electromagnetically levitated pod through a low-pressure tube.
  • The vehicle will glide silently for miles at speeds up to 600 mph (1000km/h) or more with no turbulence.
  • The system is designed to be entirely autonomous, quiet and on-demand (departures every 10–20 seconds) and, as it is built on columns or tunneled underground, eliminates the dangers of at-grade crossings and requires much smaller rights of way than high-speed rail or a highway.

2.PETN: A dangerous plastic explosive found in UP Assembly

Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is a dangerous plastic explosive preferred by militant groups because it cannot be easily detected.A policeman checking the entry pass of a visitor outside the Vidhan Sabha building after PETN explosive were found under the seat of a SP MLA in the Assembly on Friday.

A packet of white powder was discovered under the seat of  MLA Mano Pandey inside the Uttar Pradesh Assembly on Thursday. Forensic tests revealed that the substance was PETN, a plastic explosive that is the most dangerous of its kind.

PETN- Pentaerythritol tetranitrate

  • PETN or Pentaerythritol tetranitrate a dangerous plastic explosive, available in black market.
  • All over the world, it is preferred by militant groups because it cannot be easily detected owing to its colourless crystals.
  • While most explosive detectors use metal detectors, but PETN can be kept hidden in a sealed container or an  electrical  equipment as it can easily surpass security checks.
  • Although most countries have imposed restrictions on the purchase of PETN, but the substance is legally used only by the military and mining industries for detonating cords and mines.
  • PETN is relatively stable and is detonated either by heat or a shock wave. A little more than 100g of PETN could destroy a car.

Source:livemint.

3.IISER Kolkata develops fire-retardant, rust-resistant material:

Preventing mishaps “Accidents caused by throwing lighted matchsticks can be prevented by coating them with the fire-retardant hybrid molecule,” The multipurpose hybrid material prevents E. coli growth and is hydrophobic

  •   Now, paper or other materials coated with a hydrophobic (water hating) hybrid molecular material synthesised by researchers at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Kolkata can behave like a lotus leaf and keep the surface clean and water-proof.
  •   Besides increasing the mechanical strength of the coated paper 1.5 times, the molecular material can inhibit bacterial growth and even render the coated material such as paper or wood fire-proof.
  • The organic-inorganic hybrid material was synthesised by combining polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and diphenylalanine.
  •   The POSS molecule by itself has unique properties such as high thermal stability and fire retarding ability.
  •   While both POSS and diphenylalanine are naturally water repelling, the hydrophobic nature gets enhanced when they are combined.

Corrosion resistance

  •   Testing the hydrophobic nature of the hybrid material and its ability to prevent corrosion, the researchers coated iron nails with the hybrid molecular material and exposed it to water.
  •   While the nails that were not coated rusted, those with the coating did not. Coating one half of the nail with the hybrid material, the team found the uncoated portion of the nail rusted in about 12 hours when treated with water; the coated portion remained rust-free. “The coated nails did not get rusted when treated with water for up to one month.
  • The coated nails were able to resist corrosion even when treated with an aqueous solution of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium bromide and even hydrochloric acid.
  • The hybrid material is colourless and does not react with metal.
  • The coated silver artefacts were able to resist the formation of black colour (silver sulphide) on its surface when treated with hydrogen sulphide for 10 minutes.
  • This hybrid material can protect artefacts from environmental pollution and corrosion.

Fire-retardant property

  • The fire-retardant property of matchsticks coated with the hybrid material was tested. While matchstick with no coating burnt completely, those coated with only POSS to more time to reach the end of the matchstick.
  • But matchsticks coated with the hybrid material were able to extinguish the flame as soon as fire reached the coated portion. The peptide not only retards the flame but also extinguishes the fire.
  •   Plenty of accidents take place when people throw lighted matchsticks. By coating a portion of matchsticks with the hybrid material, such accidents can be prevented.

Source livemint.

Economics

 

1.Check against duplication:

Insurance regulator IRDAI will be creating a database of insurance agents and intermediaries, similar to what it did for Point of Salespersons, primarily as a check against duplication.

The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India has decided to use the Aadhaar number to achieve the objective.

The database creation began with the point of salespersons guidelines that sought to check duplication of POS enrolled by insurers and insurance intermediaries.

This is to be done through a portal, development of which is to be entrusted to the Insurance Information Bureau.

About Insurance Regulatory Authority of India (IRDA) :

  • IRDA is an apex statutory body that regulates and develops the insurance industry in India.
  • It was constituted as per provisions of Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999.
  • Headquarters: Hyderabad, Telangana. Structure and Composition: It is 10 members body consisting of: Chairman, 5 full-time members, 4 part-time members.
  •   All members are appointed by Union Government. Current chairman of IRDA is T.S. Vijayan. On 31st December 2014, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) was renamed as ‘Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India’.

Source the hindu.

 

2.Government launches GST training programme:

  • The government launched a GST training programme to skill around two lakh youth in six months to handle tax compliance issues like invoice-making.In the next six months, two lakh people will get complete training about GST.
  • The government on Saturday launched a goods and services (GST) training programme to skill around two lakh youth in six months to handle tax compliance issues like invoice-making.
  • They will be trained under the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY). The new training course would cater to the need of GST-trained professionals to help businesses in areas such as registration and calculation of tax liability under the new tax regime.
  • It will be implemented in 14 states. In the next six months, two lakh people will get complete training about GST.
  • The ministry also launched a national portal for assessors and trainers besides 51 new PMKVY centres. With this, the total number of PMKVY centres has increased to 200.
  • The  Ministry requires skilled manpower in various segments of the energy sector. Currently, the country has 15,000km of gas pipeline and additional 15,000km will be added with the help of skilled people
  • An MoU was inked between the skill development ministry and the water resources ministry. The MoU intends to develop skilled manpower for laying sewerage pipeline, construction of toilets, waste collection and its disposal activities.
  • MoU would also help in developing skills for preparing products from pious waste materials like flowers, coconuts and hair.Achieving the target of “housing for all by 2022”, skilled manpower is required. Citing an example, even the brick-making requires people with skill. At the function, ministry  also unveiled a yoga training curriculum
  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
  • It is a skill development initiative scheme of the Government of India for recognition and standardisation of skills.
  • The aim of the scheme is to encourage aptitude towards employable skills and to increase working efficiency of probable and existing daily wage earners, by giving monetary awards and rewards and by providing quality training to them.
  • Average award amount per person has been kept as Rs 8,000 (US$120). Those wage earners already possessing a standard level of skill will be given recognition as per scheme and average award amount for them is Rs  2000 to 2500.
  • In the initial year, a target to distribute 15 billion (US$230 million) has been laid down for the scheme.
  • Training programmes have been worked out on the basis of National Occupational Standards (NOS) and qualification packs specifically developed in various sectors of skills.
  • For this qualification plans and quality plans have been developed by various Sector Skill Councils (SSC) created with participation of Industries. National Skill Development Council (NSDC) has been made coordinating and driving agency for the same.
  •   Target:The scheme has a target to train 1 crore Indian youth from 2016-20.

Source:livemint.

ENVIRONMENT

1.    Monsoon picks up Kharif sowing:

 

  • This year many parts of the country covered by monsoon, this increse gaining momemtem of summer (kharif) crop.
  • The latest Union Agriculture department data showed that across the country, kharif crops have been planted on 563.17 lakh hectares till now, as against 521.80 lakh hectares in the corresponding period last year.
  • With the sowing of crops apace during the past few days across the country, paddy (rice) has been sown in 125.77 lakh hectares in the current season till July 14, which is marginally higher than the 120.32 lakh hectares recorded in the 2016-17 season.
  • The acreage under pulses has been recorded at 74.61 lakh hectares till now, as against the 60.28 lakh hectares of the corresponding period for the last season.

kharif crops

  • The crops that are sown in the rainy season are called kharif crops. (also known as the summer or monsoon crop) in India. Kharif crops are usually sown with the beginning of the first rains in July, during the south-west monsoon season. The main monsoon season in Pakistan and India runs from June to September.
  • Jowar, Rice (paddy and deepwater), Millet, Maize (corn), Soyabean, turmeric, groundnut,  sugarcane.

Source: the hindu.

 

PRELIMS FACT

 

 Sperm whale found dead, brought ashore:

 

  • The sperm whale was being hunted for Ambergris, a wax which has high commercial value in the market. The wax is secreted in the intestines of the sperm whale, which is a Schedule-I species under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

 

 

 

Sperm whale.

 

            The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), or cachalot, is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.

 

                                      Conservation status: vulnerable

                              

Source:the hindu.